Taylor-Green vortex sheet, reduced units

The Taylor-Green vortex sheet is a solution to the 2D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible Newtonian fluid:

\frac{d \mathbf{u}}{d t}= \nu \nabla^2 \mathbf{u} - \nabla p/\rho ,

where \mathbf{u} is the velocity field, p is the pressure, \nu=\mu/\rho is the kinematic viscosity, and \rho is the fixed density of the fluid. The time derivative is a total derivative:

\frac{d \mathbf{u}}{d t} =  \frac{\partial \mathbf{u}}{\partial t} + (\mathbf{u} \cdot \nabla) \mathbf{u}

It is common to choose parameters that simplify the equations, but that can obscure the role of the different parameters. In the following, I provide expressions with all relevant parameters included, with their physical dimensions. I later pass to dimensionless, or reduced, units, in terms of the Reynolds and Courant numbers.

 

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Sound waves with attenuation

Just a simple derivation of the role of attenuation in the standard sound wave equation. Original work: Stokes, 1845.

Starting with the Navier-Stokes momentum equation

\frac{\partial }{\partial t} \mathbf{u} + \mathbf{u} \nabla \mathbf{u} = - \frac{1}{\rho} \nabla p + \frac{\mu}{\rho} \nabla^2 \mathbf{u} + \left(\frac{\lambda+\mu}{\rho}\right)\nabla (\nabla\cdot\mathbf{u}) ,

where \lambda is a Lamé viscosity coefficient. The bulk viscosity coeficient  is defined as  \zeta = \lambda + (2/3) \mu. The last term  is often neglected, even in compressible flow, but sound attenuation is one of the few cases where it may have some influence. All viscosities are assumed to be constant, but in this case this is a safe assumption, since we are going to assume small departures about equilibrium values.

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